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Habel, N The Earth Bible Commentary. The earth story in Genesis. The Earth Bible, 2.

Sheffield Academic Press: Sheffield. The earth story in wisdom traditions. The Earth Bible, 3. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. Kaplan, R Kaplan, S The experience of nature: a psychological perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. LaCoque, A Romance she wrote: a hermeneutical essay on the Song of Songs. Harrisburg: Trinity Press International.

Norman Habel: List of Books by Author Norman Habel

Landy, F Paradoxes of paradise: identity and difference in the Song of Songs. Bible Literature 7.

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Sheffield: Almond Press. Longman III, T Song of Songs.


New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Michigan: Grand Rapids. Why is nature beneficial? Meyers C Discovering Eve: ancient Israelite women in context. New York: Oxford University Press. Michaelis, J The restorative effects of color and environment type on cognitive functioning. MS dissertation.

University of Central Florida, Orlando. Munro, J M Spikenard and saffron: a study in the poetic language of the Song of Songs. Murphy, R E Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress. Newsom, CA Pope, M H Song of Songs: a new translation with introduction and commentary. Anchor Bible 7C. New York: Doubleday. Skinner, J Reading this text suspiciously, Habel b—38 reiterates his former insights that the word kabash [subdue] is a harsh word, no matter how exegetes try and soften its meaning.

The moment humans appear on the earthly scene, the beautiful harmony of the first part of the creation story is disrupted Habel Where is the justice in such a mandate? Why should I be subdued as if I were an enemy to be placed under foot? Why should the creatures I brought to life be treated as the slaves of human beings? Finally, Habel —77 emphasises the way of Jesus, of serving rather than dominating Mk — This is choosing the green rather than the grey way of life. There are other mighty-acts-of-God texts that Habel highlights, but the Old Testament equivalent of the saving act of Jesus in the New Testament, namely the Exodus event, will suffice as an example.

The plagues, the departure from Egypt and the crossing of the Reed Sea Ex 13—14 all form part of this prominent event. Habel —22 focuses especially on the waters of the Nile and that of the Reed Sea to demonstrate the collateral damage inflicted by God to nature in saving Israel.

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Ex and the waters of the Reed Sea forced to swallow the Egyptians. The celebration in Exodus 15 depicts God as a mighty warrior and not as a compassionate creator Habel ibid God joins the web of creation, identifies with and permeates creation Habel ibid By associating God so closely with nature, it begets ultimate intrinsic worth! The book of Joshua has become the charter for the promised-land syndrome Habel , not only for Israel but for all colonising countries later on, invading the new world. Ironically at the forefront, even with cosmic support Jos —13 , is the warrior God.

The rights of the Canaanites who have been custodians of the land for centuries are totally ignored Habel ibid The empathising voice that Habel ibid gives to the land sounds as follows:. Why devote cities and landscapes to destruction rather than preservation? Why, after rescuing his people from Egypt with mighty acts of destruction, does this God feel constrained to do the same to the peoples and the land of Canaan?

When Israel lost their land during the exile, a new promised land is depicted, a return to Eden where miraculously even the deserts will overflow with water Is —21 , the wolf and the lamb will feed together Is and the normal river ecosystems of earth is turned upside down in their abundance Ezk Habel lets the earth protest to these unnatural ecosystems:. Why does God suggest a future where the new Promised Land is itself alien to the very creation God has celebrated in the past? These images of a transformed land, or even heaven [5] may be grand and glorious but they are hardly green — at least not as I have known green in the past.

When Habel again offers Jesus as the green answer to the grey inconvenience of some Bible traditions, he interestingly opts for a Jesus that is part of the here and now and not reigning in some distant celestial abode where the earth has been dissolved e. He finds Romans —27 a powerful green text where, whilst creation continues, it groans together with humanity and the suffering Spirit, anticipating healing from all the wrongs done to it Habel Habel ibid summarises:. However, when he emphasises a specific version or nuance of the Jesus story that may have been overlooked or neglected or ignored in the past, namely a strong emphasis on the immanent Jesus instead of a transcendent Jesus, some sort of demythologisation is taking place.

Although to converse meaningfully on matters ecological with inter alia secular science does not seem to be his primary aim at least with this book , his deliberate new emphasis of the Jesus story allows some direction in this regard. Theology can provide the ethics and science the agenda for such a better world.

Ecology and Bible – Earth Bible

The life story of Francis is richly documented see e. Habig , and his two well-known biographers, Thomas of Celano and Bonaventura, commenced with it shortly after his death. It is a rather formidable task to reconstruct or retrieve Francis from history, as with Jesus, with many of the early sources being hagiography. The latter, the writing of the lives of saints, are more than often presented as larger than life Warner He came from a wealthy house — his father, Pietro Bernardone, was a well-to-do textile merchant who often visited France for his business, which most probably inspired the name Francis.

As a typical young and rich libertine from the bourgeois class, Francis lived a worldly life of gambling, banquets, singing and dancing, the life of a typical, carefree troubadour Boff Interestingly, his gaiety and sensuousness also characterised his later life after his conversion Armstrong —23; Warner As a typical young man, Francis considered many options as a career — merchandise as his father , becoming a feudal nobleman, the military and so on — but none really spoke to his heart. During these retreats, he became convinced that he should follow Christ, the Poor Man par excellence Boff who emptied himself completely for others in obedience to his Father.

He even left the luxury of the city and his class to go and live in a leprosorium outside of the city, associating closely with the cast-out lepers. One can understand the dismay his father had for all of this. Francis was not and did not become a clergyman, but as a layman, he fulfilled his mission as a kind of gospel pilgrimage like Jesus , visiting the squares, villages and fields and not striving for the stability of the established church monasteries Boff In or , he requested approval from the Pope for his new way rule of poverty, chastity and obedience and was granted this in In , 2 years after his death in aged 45 , he was canonised a saint by Pope Gregory IX Warner Even though White — portrayed Francis as a maverick, a radical revolutionary in the church of his time with his embracing of the natural world, this was not true Sorrell There were many before him who aptly demonstrated their sense of being bonded with nature, but with Francis, this became proprietary.

He continued this tradition, but in becoming a nature mystic, he was new and innovative. Feelings cannot always be contained by the rule of sobriety and rationality. Some green acts of Francis exemplifying cosmic kinship. In what follows, a few anecdotes of some of the many green acts that Francis was known for are presented. The anecdotes fluctuate between fact and fiction often even fable-like as can be expected from hagiographical sources, but interestingly, there are only a few that contain mythological animals e.

Francis not only cared for cultivated plants but markedly wild plants as well. He insisted that his fellow friars leave a border around the community garden for wild grasses, flowers and herbs to sprout. In similar vein, he forbade the chopping down of a whole tree so that it could sprout again Warner — His valuing of the intrinsic worth of creation was taken a step further with his preaching to plants. He came to realise that this was his new calling rather than contemplative meditation and prayer as part of the eremitic lifestyle Warner — Plants should always praise God for his continued sustenance and care — and serve him.

Nature, in turn, spoke to him of God with even the twigs in a hedge becoming a sacrament or sign of the cross to him Armstrong , easily putting him into an alternative state of rapture where he met and were united with the Creator of all see waterfowl below. Celano tells of Francis picking up a worm on the pathway along which he was walking and putting it in the soft vegetation on the side, fearing that it would be crushed.

Bees impressed Francis with their diligence and foresight, and he would often speak of them for a whole day see the Septuagint addition to Pr —8. This story inclines to Franciscan romanticism or fantasy as bees would probably not nest in such a small container.

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A similar marvellous story is that of the cicada cricket which Francis kept in his cell in Portiuncula. Francis would often join her in singing and then send her back to her little hiding place.