Manual Myeloma

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The CRAB criteria is often used to identify whether a person has active myeloma, which may require treatment. One or more of these CRAB symptoms indicates symptomatic myeloma, which requires treatment.

American Society of Hematology

In the majority of cases myeloma is found in multiple bone marrow sites at diagnosis, which is why the disease is often called multiple myeloma. Sometimes an isolated collection of myeloma cells is found in only one site. When this happens the disease is described as a solitary myeloma or solitary plasmacytoma. Plasmacytomas can sometimes be successfully treated using radiotherapy alone — read more about them here. Myeloma can also be classified according to the type of immunoglobulin Ig being secreted by the myeloma cells, and how it affects the body.

Types of myeloma include:. Some people have an increased number of plasma cells in their bone marrow, but do not fit the criteria for a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Myeloma is a relatively rare disease.

Each year in Australia around 1, people are diagnosed with myeloma. Myeloma mainly affects older people, with an average age of 70 years at the time of diagnosis. Rarely, myeloma can affect people in their 20s and 30s. Myeloma is more common in men than women. The cause of myeloma remains mainly unknown.

There are rare cases where myeloma occurs in families, though in the vast majority of cases people who are diagnosed with myeloma have no family history of the disease. There are certain factors that may put some people at a higher risk of developing myeloma. Receiving a diagnosis of multiple myeloma can be difficult to cope with. You may have questions about the disease, your treatment, and your outlook.

It can be helpful to start by educating yourself and your loved ones about multiple myeloma so you, and those around you, know what to expect.

Learning more about multiple myeloma will help you and your caregivers make appropriate decisions about your care. You can find information at your local library and by searching online. Establish a strong support system of people who can help you cope with any problems or anxieties you may have.

Myeloma - Macmillan Cancer Support

This can include caregivers, loved ones, and medical experts. You might also benefit from talking with a mental health therapist about the feelings you have.

MMRF on Twitter

You may also benefit from joining a multiple myeloma support group. They can offer advice and tips for coping. When coping with your diagnosis, be sure to take enough time to recover. Treat your body well.

What are the stages and types of myeloma?

Eat healthfully. Set achievable goals that help you feel satisfied without overextending yourself. Learn more about cancer symptoms and the side effects of treatment. Have a discussion with your loved one about their disease and treatment. Show your support by asking what role you should play in their treatment.

Be honest with them and with yourself. Seek additional help if needed.


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Caring for a loved one with multiple myeloma can be challenging. You might also benefit from joining a special caregiver support group where you can talk with others also caring for loved ones with multiple myeloma. Consider joining a local or online group.

Andy Gordon is a multiple myeloma survivor and active cyclist. He wants people living with multiple myeloma to know that there is a rich, full life…. A multiple myeloma diagnosis can be overwhelming for a loved one. They'll need encouragement and positive energy. Here are a few tips to help a loved…. In multiple myeloma cases, stage 3 is the most advanced….

People with multiple myeloma experience fatigue due to the low red blood cell count caused by the cancer.

What is myeloma?

You can't prevent a multiple myeloma relapse, but learning more about relapse can help you recognize symptoms and get the right treatment. Velcade prescribing information. Cambridge, Mass. Distress management. Accessed August 2, Warner KJ. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. June 9, Russell SJ, et al. Remission of disseminated cancer after system oncolytic virotherapy.

What You Should Know

Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Ninlaro prescribing information. Rochester, Minn. Kumar S, et al. International Myeloma Working Group consensus criteria for response and minimal residual disease assessment in multiple myeloma. Lancet Oncology. Cavo M, et al. Rajkumar SV, et al. Program genealogies: Myeloma at Mayo. The Hematologist. Kyle RA, et al. Diagnostic criteria for the electrophoretic patterns of serum and urinary proteins in multiple myeloma.

Gonsalves WI expert opinion.