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This is underscored by a rise in empirical studies on the acculturation and cultural adaptation experiences of diverse groups of immigrants and refugees Yakushko et al. Acculturation has a strong conceptual and empirical appeal in sociological and psychological research because of its hypothesized as well as demonstrated relationships to a wide array of psychosocial factors among migrants, including mental health Yoon et al.

Lying at the core of acculturation theory is the person-environment transactional theoretical paradigm of stress and coping as propositioned by Lazarus and Folkman Berry, ; Ward, In essence, stress and coping are conceptualized as inherent and inevitable aspects of acculturating experiences and processes for individuals undergoing the migration process.

The cultural learning model supposes that cultural adaptation occurs through migrants' learning of culture-specific skills that would enable them to negotiate their ways in the new cultural environment Ward, Under this framework, the emphasis is placed on teaching and training migrants or newcomers new knowledge, new language, and new intercultural skills. In contrast, the stress, coping, and cultural adaptation model has been argued to be a more flexible explanatory framework to discern acculturation because it can address acculturating individuals' responses to conflicts and stresses arising from intercultural contacts.

According to Lazarus and Folkman's seminal work, the experience of stress and coping becomes most salient when individuals are faced with major life changes or challenges. Immigration or migration constitutes an example of such a major life event for migrants.

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Expectedly coping responses to counter stresses resulting from cultural transition are natural and inevitable aspects of acculturation and cultural change for most immigrants, refugees, international students or sojourners, and even for ethnic individuals of immigrant parents. In a recent literature review, Yakushko et al. They include: a pre-migration stressors, such as previous experiences with violence, conflict, and trauma, and fear associated with migrants' flight; and b post-migration stressors related to relocation, mental and physical health problems, acculturative stress, loss of social status and contact, and oppression by the host society.

Moreover, Lazarus and Folkman assert that different individuals facing a stressor of similar nature can have divergent experiences and physical and psychological reactions, due to individuals' predispositions in: a primary appraisal — the extent to which a stressor is viewed as a threat; and b secondary appraisal — the evaluation and assessment of one's resources to respond to the stressor.

This second level of appraisal speaks directly to coping strategies that would most likely be evoked in dealing with the target stressor by the individual and would subsequently impact the person's well-being and adaptation. Following this hypothesized stress—coping—acculturation relationship, it is not unexpected that coping plays a central role in major contemporary theories of acculturation and cultural adaptation.

To further explore and elucidate the above described relationships, this article will now turn to consider the hypothesized links among stress, coping, acculturation, and adaptation of migrants from four existing theories. A careful search of the existing psychological research by the author reveals that there are only a handful of comprehensively articulated conceptual models of acculturation or cultural adaptation currently in the published psychological literature.

Specifically four of these theoretical models were identified to have specifically implicated and hypothesized coping behaviors in the process and the outcome of migrants' long-term acculturation and adaptation.

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Given the specific objective of the current paper on coping and acculturation, these theoretical models will be described and reviewed with a specific focus on the hypothesized role and the function of coping in relation to migrants' acculturation and adaptation. For a fuller and more comprehensive discussion on each of these theories, readers are encouraged to refer to the original publications of these theories. These acculturation theories are presented chronologically in the order in which the theories were published. Richard Cervantes and Felipe Castro's stress—mediation—outcome theory is among the earliest conceptual model of cultural adaptation in the literature.

It addresses the relationships among stress, stress responses, and mental health consequences for immigrants. The model was established based on an extensive review of psychology literature on Mexican Americans.

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Appraisal entails a cognitive evaluation of the extent of the stressor in question. These authors postulated that this stress appraisal interacts with and is affected by a whole host of external factors e.

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Finally, coping responses are believed to act as a secondary mediator between appraisal, internal factors, and external factors on the one hand, and short- and long-term mental health and adaptation consequences e. On the basis of their proposed multivariate stress—mediation—outcome model, Cervantes and Castro advocated cross-cultural research to incorporate all of the hypothesized variables and to test the pathways among them in acculturation research with Mexican American populations.

They further stressed the need to identify and study culture-specific stress appraisal processes and coping patterns among subgroups of Mexican Americans during the process of acculturation and cultural adjustment.

They also urged cross-cultural research to investigate the appraisal and the coping processes of Mexican Americans in comparison with other ethnic groups in the USA. Even though Cervantes and Castro's Multivariate stress—mediation—outcome theory of cultural adaptation has been published for nearly two decades, it is not clear if or to what extent this model has been applied to empirically study coping and acculturation for Mexican Americans or any other cultural groups.

However, a recently modified and expanded version of Cervantes and Castro's theory is found in a newer theoretical model proposed by Castro and Murray and it will be reviewed latter in this section. Berry's formulation of cultural adaptation represents the pioneering and the most influential work on acculturation.

Berry's seminal theory of acculturation is grounded in Lazarus and Folkman's early work on stress and coping. In the model, specific group-level factors and individual-level factors occur prior to and during acculturation can act on the process and the outcome of migrants' adaptation. At the group level, on the other hand, coping behaviors are manifested through the following process. Acculturation group undergoing cultural transition first appraise the adjustment-related stressors then come up with coping strategies to deal with these stressors. The selected coping behaviors will act on the stressor and produce certain effects.

This will subsequently lead to long-term outcomes for the group, ideally in a successful adaptation. At the individual or psychological level, the theory points to a set of moderating variables for a person prior to acculturation; these encompass an individual's age, gender, education, pre-acculturation, status, migration motivation, expectations, cultural distance language, religion, etc. In addition, individual-level moderating variables occurring during acculturation can include phase of acculturation length of time , acculturation strategies attitudes and behaviors , coping strategies and resources, social support, and social attitudes prejudice and discrimination Berry, It is at this juncture of the acculturation process Berry' model stresses the particular importance of coping.

Coping is necessary for migrants to deal with psychological difficulties during acculturation and can lead to migrants' eventual adaptation in the new culture Berry, Acculturative stress is characterized by negative behavioral and emotional reactions attributable to the process and experience of adjusting to a new cultural milieu Berry et al. Berry observed that to respond to acculturative stress, individuals use a wide range of coping methods from adaptive to non-adaptive strategies, and these coping variabilities can lead to varying levels of acculturative stress experienced by migrants.

Berry called for further research to expound on the relationships between the four acculturation strategies, assimilation , separation , marginalization , and integration , and the three major types of coping, problem-focused , emotional-focused , and avoidance coping. As such, in comparison with the other three acculturation and cultural adaptation theories reviewed in this section, Berry acculturation strategies theory is clearly the most extensively applied and empirically investigated acculturation model.

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Unlike its earlier predecessor, Castro and Murray's stress—appraisal—coping scheme is grounded in the theory and research of resilience and it conceptualizes coping and cultural adjustment within a longitudinal, temporal, and developmental framework. Hence, coping abilities and resources on the part of migrants are viewed as essential in fostering and facilitating their resilient psychosocial adjustment.

Hence coping plays a central role in this resilience-based stress—appraisal—coping conceptual framework. In particular, this developmental model highlights the following aspects of coping and cultural adaptation. First, Castro and Murray hypothesize that migrants' resilience in cultural adaptation is a product of the interactions among multiple individual, familial, and community factors.

This is because these factors bear dynamic influences on migrants' process of settlement as they enter into a new cultural context. These authors asserted that the extent to which immigrants appraise these events, in terms of opportunity vs. While in Berry's acculturation theory coping behaviors are defined in specific terms i.

That is, resilience coping behaviors pertain to immigrants' personal competence or skills that can enable them to attain desirable goals and favorable short- and long-term adaptation outcomes phase g and h. These can include immigrants' ability to effectively engage in decision-making, self-control and self-regulation.