It was a spectacular decree as all previous decree of different aspects were compressed into one single package of regulation containing most recent technical requirement that are more or less international standard. Besides, such regulation opened more opportunity to any new player in pesticides business as far as all technical as well as administrative requirements are fulfilled. In addition, validity data have become imperative for evaluation.
It means, not all data and information are accepted unless they are considered valid and be worthy of further evaluation. Nowadays, any pesticide product that is registered in the country bears international standard as it was evaluated quite strictly when it applied for registration.
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From the perspective of crop management, the use of pesticides will be only the last alternative as the concept of IPM has been socialized as well as implemented to most Indonesian farmers, including those working on estate crops. Field schools were established at considerable number of the production center throughout the country. The implementation of IPM concept was successfully done except for those who are cultivating crops in the remote areas. There were hundreds thousands of farmers trained on IPM concept and farmer's understanding on such a concept was quite high.
Due to such a consideration, de-regulation on pesticides registration was issued on the base of IPM approach. Meanwhile, government has offered industry to apply for new registration for their products as it may create more products available in the market, hence it brings about more competition, empowering bargaining position of farmers, availability of good but affordable products, guarantee availability and so on. However, all marketed pesticide products are subject to review as they indicate negative evidence that harm people or environment when it is applied not complying with IPM concept.
Even more items are now available in the market, but in fact not all of them are really absorbed. It is going to be back on the market mechanism where the best and most competitive product can remain in the market to help farmers. Many of them seem not too attractive to use. Pesticides may help increase the quality of agricultural products in many ways as its use quite large in quantity.
Some pesticides have to be applied on the basis of interval application in case of preventing crop from suffering from a number of major diseases. Most horticultural products are considered as high-economic commodity that needs to be more protected from pest and diseases rather than any other agricultural commodity. Meanwhile, pest and diseases problems on crops occur all the time at any time since crop are always there. Planting season all the year round obviously provide sufficient food for pest.
This situation help promote threatening any cultivated crop from loss due to pests.
Therefore, pesticides application may not be held from use what so ever. Among them, herbicide is the highest in number on registration following by insecticide, fungicide, rodenticide etc. Based on our statistical data by end of the total numbers of registered pesticides were some 1 products.
The following Table shows total registration in , and Out of 1 products recorded in , were new registrations. New registrations have increased from year after year. Within the past three years the trend of new registration has grown at least 13 - 15 percent per annum. However, such a record is not available in the market since some of them are not ready to be launched. The average availability is about 45 - 60 percent of the total registered product. As it may happen in every country, where insecticides remain sitting in the top rank of distribution as well as registration as compared to any other pesticides.
The market share of insecticide is about 34 percent indicating more insect problem are faced as compared to diseases or weed or even any other organisms.
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The ecosystem of insect population has been severely disturbed as insecticides were applied excessively. Some major insect pests are known to be endemic pests in certain area such as Brown Plant Hopper, Stem Borer, Fruit Flies, cabbage worm, etc. Total active ingredients of insecticides being registered in Indonesia are some 94 ninety four. Following insecticides, herbicide takes second position in popularity being applied from fully cultivated area to tidal-swamp area. In some extent, herbicides are applied to least soil tillage TOT and it really works well in some area in the country.
There are now more than 70 seventy active ingredients of herbicides registered in Indonesia, some are known as contact action and some other are translocation systemic action. The application of herbicides is increasing in agricultural practices since its use offers less cost in land preparation, hand weeding, and soil tillage in some heavy areas. Farmers prefer to apply more herbicides to shortcut time budgeting in cultivation to reach the best time of harvesting and earning the best price of harvested product.
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Production cost may be reduced up to more than 40 percent by applying herbicides compare to those are not. It is proven to be quite tempting.
The application of fungicides is mostly being done in the horticulture production centers. Disease problem on cabbage, potatoes, onion, red chili, tomatoes, paprika and many other high valued commodities exist with no indication to decline unless being controlled by fungicides. As the area of horticultural is not as large as for food and secondary crops, the use of fungicides is a little less than the application of insecticides and herbicides.
But the application of fungicides from the perspective of individual is quite a lot as it is applied on interval basis to prevent the disease occurrance. Nowadays, total active ingredients of fungicides registered are 61 sixty one. Other pesticides such as rodenticide, nematicides, bactericides, and so on are quite small in quantity. Its use is very limited and not very common by farmers and other users. From the table it is shown that the numbers of registration are not always increasing.
The number of registration of insecticides in was and declined to be in due to some withdrawals from registration and some were not evaluated any further. This illustration is always happen every single year. Thus, the total number recorded in is cumulated of the total number in registration. De-regulation of pesticides registration not only promoted the number of registered products but also triggered the number of new registration holders.
Prior to the enacting of de-regulation the total number of registration holders were It increased substantially year after year and the total number of registration holders was recorded to be more than holders. The following Table 2 shows in detail information on the development of registration holder during the past three years. It shows a significant increase of the total number of registration holders as compared to the number before de-regulation was officially issued by end of The major reason for this situation to occur was that there were no longer limitations in registration as it was formerly applied by rule.
De-regulation was officially opened up for newcomers, new products and diversifying the scope of work of business players. Some of new registration holders were pesticide distributors or retailers. In addition, some new players also never dealt with pesticides business until de-regulation made it possible to do so. Hence, these days, the players vary from those who are quite professional to any other who are really new in doing pesticides business.
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Therefore strong supervision and control to its distribution has become important and is being paid more attention by the government to restrain counterfeit and vague products in the market. Based on our observations, not all players struggle enough to compete as they should be able to provide sufficient instrument such as promotional material, extension to field workers, partnership with distributors, manufacture scheduling and so on.
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In fact, only those who are capable to support all those things may stay steadily in the competition. Anytime permission is issued, Ministry of Agriculture releases one package of decrees consisting of:. Permanent permission will be granted as all technical and administrative requirements are completely fulfilled by the applicant. Validity data and any other technical information is the most important requirement for consideration.
Complete but invalid data is subject to denial and permission would not be granted. Any additional target pest as well as commodity for label extension should comply with official procedure as it is supposed to be registered officially under the permission of Ministry of Agriculture. None of label extension is exempted from the obligation of registration. To any pesticide product intended for export is not required to follow the process of registration as it is for pesticides for use domestically.
No trial report on toxicity and efficacy are required.