The scientific process places a high value on controlled experiments as a way to obtain understanding. Potential, and maybe even fanciful concerns, do not mesh well with a process that focuses on what can be measured, analyzed and quantified. This proclivity to value that which is verifiable and subject to experimental manipulation may be at odds with the values of other groups in society.
Given that ethics are difficult to integrate into the scientific process, it is perhaps not surprising that scientists often fail to articulate the ethical issues occasioned by their work, allowing that discussion to be carried out in the press or by those with a particular axe to grind. To help address this disconnect, graduate students at many universities are now required to attend ethics courses in addition to their core curriculum.
The Rutgers studies showed that for many Americans, biotechnology remains an abstract and unfamiliar concept that, in the absence of other information or knowledge, evokes negative reactions. Many of the respondents who initially disapproved of the genetic modification of animals in an abstract sense later indicated that they approved when presented with specific examples, suggesting that opinions about genetic modification are malleable when additional information is presented.
This is perhaps not surprising given the fact that most people do not consider themselves informed about biotechnology and related topics, and they generally lack knowledge about the process of livestock and food production in the United States Hallman et al. Many people change their attitudes when presented with information on why the technology is being used, and if they view the potential benefits as important.
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Although to date the only genetically engineered animal available on the U. Effective and responsible communication among scientific, community, industry and government stakeholders is essential to reach a societal consensus on the acceptable levels of risk for specific products of animal biotechnology, and to determine which set of values will ultimately be applied to decide the acceptable uses of animal biotechnology.
Bauman DE. Bovine somatotropin and lactation: From basic science to commercial application.
Domest Anim Endocrinol. The use of molecular genetics in the improvement of agricultural populations. Nat Rev Genet. Transmission and phenotypic effects of an antifreeze GH gene construct in coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Animal Cloning: A Risk Assessment. New Brunswick, NJ: www. Holland A, Johnson A.
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Animal Biotechnology and Ethics. London: Chapman Hall. Consumer Attitudes Toward Food Biotechnology. Cloned cattle can be healthy and normal. Cloned cattle fetuses with the same nuclear genetics are more variable than contemporary half-siblings resulting from artificial insemination and exhibit fetal and placental growth deregulation even in the first trimester.
Biol Reprod. Possible ecological risks of transgenic organism release when transgenes affect mating success: Sexual selection and the Trojan gene hypothesis. Fitness components and ecological risk of transgenic release: A model using Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes. Am Nat.
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A New Kind Of Fish Story: The Coming Of Biotech Animals
Food consumption risks associated with animal clones: What should be investigated?. Expression of the whey acidic protein in transgenic pigs impairs mammary development. Takahashi S, Ito Y. Evaluation of meat products from cloned cattle: Biological and biochemical properties. Thibault C. Recent data on the development of cloned embryos derived from reconstructed eggs with adult cells. Reprod Nutr Dev. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones.
Nutritional value of milk and meat products derived from cloning. Comparison of milk produced by cows cloned by nuclear transfer with milk from non-cloned cows. Van Eenennaam A. What is the future of animal biotechnology? Calif Agr 60 3 Download citation as. Enter Search Terms Search. University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of California. Archive What is the future of animal biotechnology? Authors Alison L. Van Eenennaam , UC Davis. Publication Information California Agriculture 60 3 NALT Keywords biotechnology , cloning animals , domestic animals , genetic engineering.
Author Affiliations show A. Abstract Animal biotechnology encompasses a broad range of techniques for the genetic improvement of domesticated animal species, although the term is increasingly associated with the more controversial technologies of cloning and genetic engineering.
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Van Eenennaam. References Bauman DE. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Animal cloning When most people hear the term animal biotechnology, they think of Dolly the sheep, the first mammal ever cloned or duplicated from an adult cell. Van Eenennaam Epigenetic changes are visible in tortoiseshell female cats. Agricultural uses There are probably only a few prospective uses for cloned animals in commercial agricultural operations. Food safety The main underlying food-safety concern with SCNT clones is whether the nuclear reprogramming that occurs during the cloning process has any influence on the composition of animal food products.
Pets Although the cloning of livestock has been ongoing for several years, the first cloned-to-order pet was sold in December Genetic engineering Although cloning is not genetic engineering per se, there is a logical connection between these two technologies. Agricultural applications Genetic engineering was originally envisioned to have a multitude of agricultural applications.
Applying similar technology and using a complex bioinformatics approach, the functional potential of oceanic microbial communities in the Sargasso Sea was explored Venter et al. Subsequent metagenomic studies Rusch et al. Along with metagenomics, in the past few years there has been an explosion in marine environmental proteomics, the large scale characterization of proteins recovered from different coastal and marine ecosystems. While the 16S rRNA data provide essential information about the species membershipof a sample and the metagenome sequences provide an account of all possible gene products in an environmental sample, proteomics is employed to determine protein expression profiles of microbial communities, greatly expanding our knowledge of marine microorganisms and their impact on the ocean.
Ground-breaking research in environmental proteomics hasrevealed important associations between protein diversity and ecological function in microbial communities. Proteomics can be a useful tool in determining phylogenetic relationships and resolving important questions in metapopulation biology and adaptation review in Biron et al. High-resolution capillary liquid chromatography coupled to an LTQ mass spectrometer was used to build an accurate mass and time AMT tag library as a tool to analyze protein profiles of the marine alpha-proteobacterium Candidatus pelagibacterubique, and to identify adaptation mechanisms and differentially expressed proteins from the exponential and stationary growth phases Sowell et al.